COVID-19 and Cybersecurity

Author: Muhammad Shoaib The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented global social disruption and also altered the threat landscape in the domain of cybersecurity. The landscape is characterised by changing patterns of behaviour and consequently an increase in incidents of coronavirus-related cyberattacks. This trend of exploitation of a global pandemic is not unique. Hacktivists tend to…

Pakistan’s Nuclear Compulsion

Author: Moiz Khan Pakistan’s nuclear programme is based primarily on realpolitik considerations and driven by necessities of national security, territorial integrity, and strategic stability. The raison d’être for acquiring a nuclear deterrent was to ensure its security by redressing the balance of power in the region, which India had tried to tilt in its favour…

The Global Ramifications of the Turkey-Russia S-400 Deal

Over the last couple of months, a heated debate as to whether Turkey would deploy the purchased regiment of S-400 batteries from Russia or whether it would succumb to American pressure has engaged policy circles across the globe. Ankara has, however, maintained that the delay in the deployment of the air defence system is caused by ongoing global pandemic and the country will ultimately bring the system into operation. The geopolitical compulsions behind the deal and implications it bears on the restive region also demand that Ankara not back off from operationalising the system.  

Second Strike: Explaining Sea-based Deterrence in South Asia

by Amina Afzal Submarine-based nuclear capabilities are considered the most survivable leg of a nuclear triad. While conventional submarines are constrained by their fuel requirements and limited underwater endurance, nuclear powered submarines have greater endurance and enhanced tactical and strategic capabilities. Both a nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) and a ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) are nuclear-powered,…