Kulbhushan Jadhav Case Timeline

YEAR 2016 - 2019

Written and Compiled by Muhammad Abdul Qadeer

21 February 2019

According to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on February 21, the public hearings in the Kulbhushan Jadhav case were concluded and the “court would now begin its deliberation.”

During the hearings, which started on February 18, 2019 at The Hague, India requested the ICJ to adjudge and declare that Pakistan acted in “egregious breach” of Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations 1963, as it failed to inform Jadhav of his rights and declined consular access to him. India had also questioned the functioning of Pakistan’s military courts and urged the ICJ to annul Jadhav’s death sentence. Pakistan has maintained that the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations does not apply to spies. Representing Pakistan’s case at the ICJ, Pakistan’s counsel Khawar Qureshi called upon the ICJ to dismiss India’s claim for relief on the grounds of its “unfair and unrealistic approach.” Pakistan’s counsel argued that India has demonstrated “abject failure to respond to evidences of espionage” against its serving Navy Commander, Kulbhushan Jadhav. On India’s criticism of Pakistan’s judicial system, the counsel said that Pakistan had a very robust judicial review and reconsideration system through various levels of the court system. Khawar Qureshi also stressed that the Indian version that Jhadav was kidnapped from Iran is baseless and maintained the “Indian spy” was apprehended from Balochistan. Khawar Qureshi said Kulbhushan Jadhav was issued a passport by the Indian government in 2003 in the name Hussain Mubarak Patel. Qureshi questioned how India issued a passport to its citizen on a fake identity and how he was then permitted to travel on travel document… The ICJ is expected to deliver its verdict in the Jadhav case in late 2019. Jadhav, an Indian Navy Commander, was sentenced to death by a Pakistani military court in 2017 for his involvement in espionage and subversive activities in Pakistan. The ICJ had stayed Jadhav’s execution in 2018 pending the final verdict by the ICJ.      

23 August 2018

On August 23, Pakistan’s Foreign Minister, Shah Mehmood Qureshi expressed hope that the country would win the Kulbhushan Jadhav case in the International Court of Justice (ICJ).

The Foreign Minister said that Pakistan has solid evidence against Jadhav and that the government would present Pakistan’s stance in an “effective manner” before the ICJ. Qureshi’s comments came a day after media reports claimed that the ICJ would start hearing the Jadhav case from February, 19, 2019. Jadhav, an Indian Navy Commander, was arrested by Pakistani Security Forces on March 3, 2016 during a counter-intelligence operation in Balochistan. In April 2017 Pakistan’s Military Court awarded Jadhav death sentence on charges of espionage and terrorism. Following the decision, India approached the ICJ against the death sentence arguing that Islamabad had violated the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations by denying Jadhav access to legal assistance. On May 18, 2017, the ICJ restrained Pakistan from executing Kulbhushan Jadhav until a final judgement of the court in the case. Pakistan accepted the decision and said “the orders do not affect the current status of Jadhav’s case as his execution was not imminent, given pending appeals.” Pakistan also argued that the Vienna Convention does not apply to spies.

17 July 2018

On July 17, Pakistan filed a second counter-memorial in the Kulbhushan Jadhav case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) at The Hague.

According to Pakistan’s Foreign Office the counter-memorial contains comprehensive details regarding Jadhav and is a step-wise response to all Indian objections. The plea submitted by Pakistan argues that the Vienna Convention is not applicable in the case of Jadhav, who is a commissioned officer in the Indian Navy and was serving with the spy agency RAW at the time of his capture in Pakistan in March 2016. India had approached the ICJ against Pakistan for allegedly violating Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations by denying consular access to Jadhav.

17 April 2018

On April 17, India’s Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) spokesperson, Raveesh Kumar said that India has submitted its rejoinder to Pakistan’s counter memorial before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav’s case.

Pakistan would file its counter rejoinder before July 17, 2018. Earlier on December 13, 2017, Pakistan submitted a counter-memorial before the ICJ against India’s request for consular access to convicted Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav saying the provision of such an access under the Vienna Convention is only for legitimate visitors and not for spies. Pakistan said that Jadhav is not an ordinary person as he had entered the country with the intent of spying and carrying out sabotage activities. However, in December 2017, Pakistan allowed a meeting between Jadhav and his wife and mother in Pakistan on “humanitarian grounds”.

6 February 2018

Citing a Pakistani official, Dawn reported on February 6 that convicted Indian spy, Kulbhushan Jadhav is now undergoing trial on charges of terrorism and sabotage.

The report noted that the case against Jhadav regarding espionage had been concluded. The report also said that Pakistan has sought repeated access to 13 Indian officials to seek information in the Jadhav case but India has remained uncooperative. India’s National Security Adviser (NSA) Ajit Doval and a former RAW chief were among the officials whom Pakistan has sought access to. Jadhav had been apprehended by Pakistani Security Forces in March 2016, in Balochistan. Pakistan’s Military Court sentenced him to death after he was found guilty of espionage. India, however, has maintained that Jadhav was kidnapped from Iran where he had business interests after retiring from the Indian Navy. In a related development on February 16, 2018, Frontline, an Indian news Magazine published a report titled “India’s Secret War” claiming that India has “secretly built up a covert action programme against Pakistan since 2013.” It stated that India should also consider the “long-term consequences” of its expanding covert actions. India’s Ministry of External Affairs rejected the report.

January 2018

On January 6, Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesperson, Muhammad Faisal expressed doubts over the press freedom in India and alleged that the Indian Government got removed the news story telling truth about convicted Indian spy, Kulbhushan Jadhav from a newspaper.

On January 5, 2018, an Indian news portal The Quint published a news story titled “Two ExRAW Chiefs Did Not Want Kulbhushan Jadhav Recruited As Spy”, written by an Indian journalist, Chandan Nandy. One day later, The Quint retracted the article and said it was “rechecking” the story. Meanwhile, Pakistan’s Foreign Office citing media reports said that Nandy was “missing” or had “gone in hiding”, since then. Nandy, in his article, said two former chiefs of the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) had been against the recruitment of Jadhav as a spy to Pakistan. He revealed that after two RAW chiefs rejected Jadhav’s appointment, a third one agreed to it and “the recruitment was approved by a joint secretary as the supervisory officer. The RAW has a special unit which also undertakes parallel operations in certain crucial target countries for which it seeks out its own recruits.” ·



On January 4, Pakistan’s Foreign Office released a video of convicted Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav. In the video, Jadhav reiterated that he is a “commissioned officer of the Indian navy”, and his commission is “not yet over”.

Jadhav also said that his mother and wife, who met him on December 25, 2017, were “shouted at” by the Indian Deputy High Commissioner who was accompanying them. In response, India’s Ministry of External Affairs dismissed the video as being “propagandistic”. Earlier on December 25, 2017, Kulbhushan Jadhav’s mother and wife had visited Islamabad and met him at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Soon after the meeting, India’s External Affairs Ministry had accused Pakistan of “intimidating” Jadhav’s family. Pakistan had rejected the charges.

December 2017

On December 25 convicted Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav’s mother and wife visited Islamabad and met him at Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The duration of the meeting between the spy and his family was 40-minute-long. Indian Deputy High Commissioner, J P. Singh, accompanied Jhadav’s family.

However, neither Singh nor any other Indian official was allowed to meet him. The Government of Pakistan allowed Jadhav’s family to meet him on ‘humanitarian grounds.’ However, it has denied consular access to him insisting that the Vienna Convention does not apply to spies. Soon after the meeting, India’s External Affairs Ministry accused Pakistan of “intimidating” Jadhav’s family and alleged that Jadhav’s wife’s shoes had been removed during the security check and were not returned. Pakistan’s Foreign Ministry rejected the Indian claims and said the shoes were seized after a “metal chip” was found in one of her shoes, which was being analysed. Pakistani authorities insist that India had been already informed that the spy’s family would have to undergo security clearance before the meeting could take place. This was the first meeting between Jadhav with his family since his arrest in March 2016.



On December 13, Pakistan submitted a counter-memorial before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against India’s request for consular access to convicted Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav saying the provision of such an access under the Vienna Convention is only for legitimate visitors and not for spies.

Pakistan said that Jadhav is not an ordinary person as he had entered the country with the intent of spying and carrying out sabotage activities. However, Pakistan has allowed a meeting of Jadhav with his wife and mother in Pakistan on “humanitarian grounds”. Commander Jadhav, who had confessed for his involvement in espionage and fomenting terrorism in Pakistan, was captured from Balochistan in March, 2016 by the Pakistani authorities. India, however, maintains that Jadhav was kidnapped from Iran where he had business interests after retiring from the Navy.

November 2017

In a note verbale to Pakistan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs on November 23, India’s Ministry of External Affairs said that Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav’s mother and wife would travel to Pakistan if the government will give “sovereign guarantee” for their “safety and security” and added, “they should not be questioned or harassed,” during their stay in the country. India also laid down conditions that one of its officials should be allowed to accompany Jadhav’s family.

Pakistan has refused so far to allow any contact with Indian officials. Pakistan has also denied India’s request for consular access to Jhadav maintaining that “spies” are not entitled to such benefits. Earlier on November 10, 2017, Pakistan’s Foreign Office said that the Government of Pakistan has decided to allow a meeting of convicted Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav with his wife, in Pakistan on “humanitarian grounds.”



On November 10, Pakistan’s Foreign Office said that the Government of Pakistan has decided to allow a meeting of convicted Indian spy, Commander Kulbhushan Jadhav with his wife, in Pakistan on “humanitarian grounds.”

In response, India’s Defence Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman said that Pakistan’s decision to allow Kulbhushan Jadhav’s wife to meet him would boost his morale. She also said that the Indian government is trying its best for his release. Commander Jadhav has been in Pakistani custody since March 2016 and has been convicted of spreading terrorism in Balochistan and Karachi.

October 2017

On October 21, Pakistan’s Foreign Office termed as “speculative” the reports that India’s External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj in her introductory meeting with the Pakistan’s High Commissioner to India, Sohail Mahmood had called for Islamabad to review its position on convicted Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav’s case.

The Foreign Office said that no specific case came under discussion and the High Commissioner’s meeting with the minister was a “customary call”. Indian media reported that Sushma Swaraj had asked the Pakistan government to review its position on Jadhav and grant his mother a visa to visit Pakistan.



According to Radio Pakistan on October 11, Pakistan has nominated former Chief Justice, Tassaduq Hussain Jillani as ad hoc Judge in the Kulbhushan Jadhav case at the International Court of Justice (ICJ).

According to Pakistan’s Foreign Office, the government of Pakistan has communicated to the ICJ about this development. Judge Dalveer Bhandari from India sits as a Judge of the ICJ. The decision came as Pakistan started the process to file its plea in response to the Indian plea submitted with the ICJ on September 13, 2017 against the conviction of Jadhav. The ICJ had asked Pakistan to submit its response by December 13, 2017.

September 2017

On September 15, Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesperson, Nafees Zakaria said that Pakistan has received the written pleadings submitted before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) by India in the case of Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav.

Earlier on September 13, 2017, India’s External Affairs Ministry said the country had submitted its written pleadings to the ICJ in the Jadhav case. Pakistan will submit its counter-memorial to the ICJ on December 13, 2017.

July 2017

According to Dawn on July 1, India’s Ministry of External Affairs renewed its demand “to grant full and early consular access” to convicted spy Kulbhushan Jadhav and another Indian national, Hamid Nehal Ansari.

In a related development on July 2, Pakistan’s Foreign Office asked India not to equate Kulbhushan Jadhav, a convicted spy, with civilian prisoners and fishermen as Islamabad rejected New Delhi’s plea to allow consular access to the Indian spy. The Indian Ministry of External Affairs had stated that it was ready to discuss “humanitarian matters with Pakistan, including those pertaining to prisoners and fishermen.” It also called on the Pakistani government for an “early release and repatriation of Indian prisoners, missing Indian defence personnel and fishermen.” Meanwhile, Pakistan insists, “equating the case of the Indian spy to civilian prisoners was a travesty of logic.” It maintained that Commander Jhadav is a serving Indian Naval officer and sent to Pakistan by its intelligence agency RAW for espionage, terrorism and subversive activities. Another Indian national, Hamid Nehal Ansari illegally entered Pakistan from Afghanistan in 2012. He was later arrested and a Pakistani military court, pronounced him guilty of espionage in April 2016. However, in a separate development on July 13, 2017, Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesman said it is reviewing India’s request for granting a visa to Kulbushan Yadav’s mother. Jadhav’s mother had submitted a visa application at the Pakistani High Commission in New Delhi after her son was sentenced to death in April 2017.

June 2017

According to the Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR) on June 22, convicted Indian spy Kulbushan Jadhav, who has been sentenced to death on charges of espionage, sabotage and terrorism, made a mercy petition to Pakistan’s Army Chief, General Qamar Javed Bajwa.

In his plea, Commander Jadhav admitted his involvement in espionage, terrorist and subversive activities in Pakistan and requested the Chief of Army Staff to spare his life on “compassionate grounds.” The ISPR statement said that Jadhav, a serving Indian Navy officer, had earlier appealed to the Military Appellate Court which was rejected. The Pakistan Army also released a second confessional video of convicted Indian spy Jadhav in which he said that RAW had sponsored various terrorist activities in Pakistan in order to disrupt economic activities linked to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and foment unrest in Balochistan and Karachi. If his appeal for clemency is rejected by the Army Chief, he would have recourse to appeal to President Mamnoon Hussain. India moved the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against the 31 death penalty handed down to Jadhav on May 8 2017. India has accused Pakistan of violating the Vienna Convention by repeatedly denying consular access to Jadhav. In a hearing of the case on May 18 2017, a 10-member bench of the ICJ restrained Pakistan from executing Jadhav pending the final decision of the court.



According to Radio Pakistan on June 9, Attorney General of Pakistan, Ashtar Ausaf Ali urged the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to expedite hearing of Kulbhushan Jadhav case. He made the demand during a meeting with President of the Court Ronny Abraham. The Attorney General also informed the ICJ of Pakistan’s intent to appoint an ad hoc judge to hear the Jhadav case.

Dalveer Bhandari, a former Indian Supreme Court judge, is part of the 12-member panel that ordered Pakistan to stay the execution of Jadhav, pending the final decision of the court. The panel includes “a judge of the nationality of one of the parties”, and Article 31 of the ICJ permits the other party to choose a person to sit as judge. The previous 33 hearings over Jadhav’s case were held in the ICJ on May 18, 2017 after India approached the court against Pakistan, accusing the country of violating the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

May 2017

On May 18, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) restrained Pakistan from executing convicted Indian spy Kulbushan Jadhav until a final verdict. The development follows a unanimous decision by the 10-member bench at The Hague ordering “provisional measures” that called upon Pakistan to “take all measures to ensure that Kulbushan Sudhir Jadhav, an Indian national, is not executed pending a final judgement of the court in the Jadhav case. Pakistan accepted the decision and said “the orders do not affect the current status of Jadhav’s case as his execution was not imminent, given pending appeals.”

However, Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Adviser, Sartaj Aziz, said on May 20, 2017 that country’s domestic laws would prevail in the matter. Earlier on May 15, 2017, Pakistan had challenged the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Jadhav case arguing that criminal cases under the Vienna Convention do not fall under the international court’s jurisdiction. In its arguments, Pakistan also cited a 2008 bilateral agreement on consular access with India where both sides agreed that the right to consular access would not apply in matters related to national security. The Court, however, rejected Pakistan’s argument. It observed that India sought to ground its jurisdiction in Article I of the Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention, which provides that the Court has jurisdiction over “disputes arising out of the interpretation or application of the Vienna Convention”. The Court noted that “Parties differ on the question of India’s consular assistance to Mr. Jadhav under the Vienna Convention”. The Court further observed that “the existence of a 2008 bilateral Agreement between the Parties on consular relations does not change its conclusion on jurisdiction”. Pakistan’s government modified its 1960 declaration before the ICJ on March 29, 2017, which added the clause that the ICJ would not have compulsory jurisdiction on “all matters related to the national security of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan”. The new declaration revoked the previous Declaration made in September 1960, in which Pakistan had agreed to the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ and did not contained any exception. The Indian government initiated proceedings in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Pakistan on May 8, 2017, accusing the latter of violating the Vienna Convention in the case of Indian spy Kulbushan Jadhav. Pakistan had stressed that the Indian spy was sentenced to death after fulfilling all necessary legal requirements and he was also given counsel to defend allegations against him.



According to Radio Pakistan on May 15, Pakistan challenged the jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the case of Indian application regarding conviction of its spy Kulbhushan Jadhav.

The development came after the ICJ held a hearing in The Hague on the case of Kulbhushan Jadhav, an Indian Naval Commander, who was given death sentence by the Pakistani military court in April 2017, for his involvement in espionage and sabotage activities in the country. Earlier on May 8, 2017, the Indian government initiated proceedings in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Pakistan, accusing the latter of violating the Vienna Convention in the case of Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav. Presenting Pakistan’s position at the hearing, Muhammad Faisal, Director General of South Asia in Foreign Office said that criminal cases under Vienna Convention do not come under the jurisdiction of ICJ. He stated that Indian Naval Commander Jadhav was arrested by Pakistani Forces during an operation in Balochistan province and he has confessed to the killing of dozens of innocent Pakistanis. He further stressed that the Indian spy was sentenced to death after fulfilling all necessary legal requirements and he was also given counsel to defend allegations against him. He also said that India did not produce evidence provided by Pakistan against Jadhav in the international court. Pakistan also said that the provisions of the Vienna Convention do not apply to a “spy involved in terror activities”. India’s representative at the ICJ hearing, Deepak Mittal, said that Pakistan has repeatedly denied consular access to Jadhav and described the charges against him as “concocted” and his trial as “farcical.” India also appealed to the ICJ to order Pakistan to suspend its planned execution of Jadhav.

April 2017

On April 26, Indian High Commissioner, Gautam Bambawale met Pakistan’s Foreign Secretary Tehmina Janjua in Islamabad and sought consular access to Indian spy Kulbushan Jadhav.

During their meeting, Foreign Secretary Janjua informed the Indian High Commissioner that India cannot be given access to Kulbhushan Jadhav as he is a spy. She stressed that Pakistan had agreed to provide India with access to prisoners, not spies. Jadhav alias Hussein Mubarak Patel is an Indian Navy officer who was arrested in a counter intelligence operation from Balochistan earlier on March 3, 2016. Jhadav had confessed that he was tasked to foment terrorism in Pakistan, particularly in Karachi and Balochistan.



On April 10, Pakistan’s Field General Court Martial sentenced Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav to death following a trial for involvement in espionage and fomenting terrorism in Pakistan.

In a related development on April 11, India’s Minister for External Affairs (MEA) Sushma Swaraj warned Pakistan of “consequences” if it proceeds with the death sentence of Kulbhushan Jadhav.

Radio Pakistan reported on April 14 that Indian High Commissioner, Gautam Bambawale, called on the Foreign Secretary Tehmina Janjua in Islamabad and discussed the issue of Indian serving Naval Officer and RAW agent Kulbhushan Jadhav. Gautam Bambawale said it would appeal against the death sentence to Kulbhushan Jadhav and demanded from Pakistan a certified copy of the charge sheet as well as the army court order in the case, besides seeking consular access to the Indian navy officer Jadhav. On April 14, Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Adviser, Sartaj Aziz had shared the charge sheet against Jadhav and said that “Inflammatory statements and rhetoric” about ‘pre-meditated murder’ will only result in escalation, serving no useful purpose.” Pakistani authorities had arrested Jadhav from Balochistan on March 3, 2016. According to the Pakistan military, “The spy was tried through Field General Court Martial (FGCM) under the Pakistan Army Act (PAA) and awarded the death sentence.” Jadhav was also provided a defending officer according to legal provisions. Meanwhile, India lodged a formal protest with Pakistan over Jadhav’s death sentence and announced that in case the punishment was carried out it would regard it as ‘premeditated murder’. Jadhav had confessed before the court that he was tasked by RAW to plan, coordinate and organise subversive activities in Karachi and Balochistan. In January 2017, Pakistan had shared a dossier on India’s interference and terrorism in Pakistan with the UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres. The dossier also contained proof of India’s interference in Pakistan and its involvement in destabilising the country.

March 2017

According to The Nation on March 4, Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Adviser, Sartaj Aziz informed the Senate that there is no proposal under consideration to extradite Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav and added that he would be tried in a local court.

The adviser also said that Pakistan has shared a dossier with the UN Secretary General about Indian involvement in the internal affairs of Pakistan and detailing India’s subversive and terrorist activities in Pakistan. Sartaj Aziz also said that Pakistan sent a list of questions to the Indian government on this matter. Aziz also stressed that the government may also share the dossier with other countries and international organisations.

December 2016

The Nation reported on December 31, citing official of the Pakistan’s Foreign Office, that Pakistan has finalised a dossier against arrested Indian spy Kulbushan Jhadav and Indian subversive activities inside Pakistan adding that the dossiers will be presented to the new Secretary General of the UN, Antonio Guterres soon after he takes over the office in January 2017.

Pakistan’s security forces arrested Jhadav, a serving Indian naval officer and an operative of India’s intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), on March 24, 2016. Jhadav confessed that he was promoting unrest in Balochistan and Karachi and had been working with the Baloch insurgents and terrorist organisations. Pakistan has consistently accused India of destabilising the country by sponsoring and orchestrating terrorism inside Pakistan and aiding separatist groups in Balochistan. The Indian External Affairs Ministry accepted that Jhadav was a former Indian Navy official, however it claimed he had no links with the government. The dossier also contains video evidences of an Indian submarine’s attempted violation of the Pakistani maritime boundary.



On December 7, Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesperson, Nafees Zakaria issued a statement, saying the remarks attributed to Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Adviser, Sartaj Aziz regarding Kulbhushan Jadhav were “absolutely incorrect” and stressed that the “Adviser had said that the investigations regarding the network of Kulbhushan Jadhav are ongoing and the dossier shall be completed upon conclusion of the investigation.”

Media reports claimed that Pakistan’s Foreign Affairs Adviser, Sartaj Aziz stated in the Senate on December 7 that the government could not finalise a dossier on captured Indian spy Kulbhushan Jadhav because of inadequate evidence provided so far. Zakaria added that there is “irrefutable proof against Kulbhushan Jadhav, who had also made a public confession in March 2016.” Jadhav is believed to be a serving Indian Naval officer, who was arrested from Balochistan in March 2016 and is accused of planning “subversive activities” in Pakistan, particularly in Balochistan and Karachi.

March 2016

On March 24, Pakistani law enforcement agencies arrested an officer of the Indian Navy, deputed on assignment to its spy agency, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). Officials said that the suspect was arrested in an intelligence-based raid in Chaman, a town in Balochistan.

On March 25, Indian High Commissioner Gautam Bambawale was summoned to the Foreign Office to receive a demarche over the arrest of this Indian intelligence operative from Balochistan. In a related development on March 31, Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesperson Nafees Zakaria said that Pakistan had informed the European Union (EU) and the world’s “major capitals” about the Indian spy’s arrest from Balochistan.

The government and military held a joint press conference and released the confessional video of the arrested Indian spy Kulbhushan Yadav. He also revealed that he was an engineering cadre officer of the Indian Navy and had joined the Indian intelligence agency RAW in 2013. He was consequently tasked with promoting unrest in Balochistan and Karachi. Yadav has also admitted to his links with a banned religious organisation involved in targeted killings and other acts of terrorism in Pakistan. The initial investigation also revealed that Yadav had links with various Baloch separatist leaders and insurgents. According to the Pakistani Military, Yadav’s arrest demonstrates that India is promoting ‘state-sponsored terrorism’ in Pakistan. Meanwhile, India’s Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), denied that Yadav had any links with the government. Delhi however admitted that Yadav is an Indian national who has previously served in the Indian Navy. Analysts say India’s acknowledgement that Yadav was associated with its armed forces poses serious questions over Indian activities in Pakistan. Pakistan has repeatedly highlighted its concerns regarding Indian involvement in fomenting unrest in Pakistan, particularly in Karachi and Balochistan. In October 2015, Pakistan also gave dossiers to the UN and the US showing proof of Indian involvement in carrying out terrorist activities in Pakistan.



In a March 31 letter addressed to Iranian ambassador Mehdi Honardoost in Islamabad, Pakistan asked Iran to investigate and share details of Indian spy Kulbhushan Yadav’s activities in Iran. Pakistan also sought from Tehran the details of Yadav’s colleague, who was identified as Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) operative Rakesh alias Rizwan.

Pakistan has also demanded the immediate arrest and handover of Rakesh, alias Rizwan, for interrogation. Islamabad claims Rakesh alias Rizwan was assisting Kulbhushan Yadav who was arrested by Pakistani authorities from Balochistan earlier on March 24. The development comes immediately after Pakistan released Indian spy Kulbhushan Yadav’s confessional video. Yadhav said that he had established a business in the Iranian city of Chahbahar and crossed Pakistan from Iran. Dismissing the news the Iranian embassy in Islamabad said that some elements were opposed to Pak-Iran ties and were trying to spread “undignified” and “offensive” rumours to undermine Iran-Pakistan relations.